## Numerical integration in R

### Math 101

Although R in not a symbolic language like Mathematica, Maple or Matlab, it can be used for calculus operations. Letâ€™s get started. For the shake of simplicity, we will integrate the following equation: $f(x) = \cos(x) + 2$ We first define the equation in the form of a function since it is a requirement to use the R integrate function. Then, plot the function curve between 0 and 4. [Read More]

## Calculating daylight in R

A little bit more than a year ago I moved in Denmark. So far, the last year has been quite fun and I have been working on interesting projects. The most difficult part has been the winter since the daylight is very short between November and February. I was curious to see what was the difference in daylight between my home country (Canada) and Denmark. This is a short post showing how to calculate daylight based on the latitude position and the day of the year (DOY). [Read More]

## R 101

Sometimes when you open a data file (lets say a .csv), variables will be recognized as factor whereas it should be numeric. It is therefore tempting to simply convert the variable to numeric using as.numeric(). Big mistake! If you use directly as.numeric() on a variable of the type factor, R will returns the levels of the factor rather the actual values. To overcome this hassle, you should first convert the variable into a string with as. [Read More]